MARIO MERZ
Mario Merz was born on 1st January 1925 in Milan and moved with his family to Turin as a child. During the Second World War, he abandoned his university studies in medicine and played an active part in the struggle against the Fascists. Arrested in 1945 whilst distributing of handbills, he began painting in jail, drawing the beard of a cell companion in infinite spirals. Following the liberation, encouraged by the critic, Luciano Pistoi, Merz decided to dedicate himself entirely to painting. His first one-man show took place in 1954 at the Galleria La Bussola in Turin, and presented some expressionist-style oils on canvas. By the middle of the 1960s, Merz’ research had developed and evolved towards an artistic experimentation that led him to produce “volumetric paintings” (Mila Pistoi): canvas constructions enveloping objets trouvés, organic or industrial materials, whose appearance in the work contributed to place the artist amongst the protagonists of Arte Povera. Everyday objects – hampers, pots, raincoats –, organic items – woodpiles, beeswax, clay –, technical materials – metal washers and mesh, glass, neon –, quotations (including non-literary ones), manifested themselves as hitherto neglected energies in art which Merz liberated in a “sum of interior projections on the objects”, translating them sometimes “directly into the objects” (Germano Celant), reinterpreting them in repositioning them within new panorama of forms and pronouncements. The igloo (1969) and the table (1973) appeared: one “forms an ideal organic […], at one world and small house” that the artist presented as inhabitable, an absolute space that was not modelled but a “half-glove placed on the ground”; the other “the first thing […] for the determination of space”, “a piece of raised ground, like a rock in the landscape”. Igloo and table are, despite the primary and archetypal structures, both aesthetic and socio-political declarations in their representation of the definitive move beyond the picture. 1970 saw the start of the numbered Fibonacci series, a progression in which each number is the sum of the two before (0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21…). Merz interpreted the numerical sequence – identified by the Pisan mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci in 1202 – as the emblem of the dynamics associated with the growth processes in the organic world, placing the number in neon on his own works, from the preview of the Fibonacci Santa Giulia, hung in the kitchen of his Turin home (1968), to the Suite buried along no. 1 tram line in Strasbourg (1994), and from the above-mentioned proliferating tables of John Weber to the fibrillation of the igloos at the Zurich Kunsthaus (1985), and on to the Salpêtrière in Paris (1987) and the co-penetration of tables and igloos (at the Capc, Bordeaux, 1987, and the Stedelijk, Amsterdam, 1994). The recurrence of given forms which all lead back to the spiral, such as the triangle, cone, vortex, and visualised artistically, inferable or discerned in an infinite series of mostly organic elements such as snails, branches, leaves, pine cones, horns, is connected to the same series of Fibonacci, a numeric transcription of a figure which, starting from zero, expands infinitely in a spiral development. The major exhibitions of the 1980s (Palazzo delle Esposizioni di San Marino, 1983 and Guggenheim in New York, 1989) were characterised by a pictorial practice that took on increasing significance, becoming “long and fast”, a natural habitat for wild, “prehistoric” animals such as the rhinoceros, crocodile, tiger, bison, owl, all of which were also bearers of a clear primacy. The animal portraits are “religious but also organic symbols” flanked and assembled on the previously identified forms (the igloo and table, and their transfer to canvas) and on the objects (neon, bottles, raincoats, newspapers, snails, Merz the “shaman’s” tree), with a proliferating, spiral cadence marked by the Fibonacci series. But they are also subject to a process of metamorphosis (technically effected by abolishing frame and priming, and by allowing the paint to soak into the canvas, “so that it is primed by the paint, rather than merely constituting a support”), which causes paws to emerge from the painted canvas so that it can become the animal it portrays. This intense period, during which the artist also published a sizeable sylloge of writings (Ich will Sofort ein Buch machen/Voglio fare subito un libro, Sauerländer, Aarau-Frankfurt and Hopefulmonster, Florence), was followed by a phase characterised by a return to the essential nature of matter and line (one-man show at the Fundaçâo de Serralves, Porto, 1999). Considerable importance was given to drawing which became the protagonist of a series of large installations. The artist exhibited at the Carré d’Art – Musée d’Art Contemporain, Nîmes (2000) and for the first time in Latin America with a one-man show at the Fundación Proa, Buenos Aires (2002). He took part in Zero to Infinity: Arte Povera 1962-1972 (2001), the first anthological exhibition on Arte Povera in the United Kingdom, organised by the Tate Modern in London and the Walker Art Center of Minneapolis. The 6th November 2002 saw the inauguration of the permanent installation, Igloo fontana, for the railway bypass in the city of Turin. Amongst the many honours received were an Honorary Degree from the Dams in Bologna (2001) and the Praemium Imperiale of the Japan Art Association (2003). The artist died at dawn on 9th November 2003 in Milan.
BIO
Selected Exhibitions: 2010 - 2011 Von Carl Andre bis Gregor Schneider. Dorothee und Konrad Fischer: Archiv einer Haltung, Museum Kurhaus Kleve 2010 - 2011 Die Natur der Kunst, Kunstmuseum Winterthur 2009 - 2010 Die Kunst ist super!, Hamburger Bahnhof, Berlin 2009 - 2010 Capolavori della modernitá, with John Chamberlain, Museo di arte moderna e contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto 2009 Wall Works (Giovanni Anselmo, Daniel Buren, Lawrence Carroll, Mario Merz, Felice Varini, Lawrence Weiner), Buchmann Lugano, Agra/ Lugano 2009 1968. Die große Unschuld, Kunsthalle Bielefeld, Germany 2009 15 Years of Collecting - Against the Grain, Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg 2009 Silences, MAMCS, Strasbourg, France 2008 - 2009 Interior/Exterior (with Zaha Hadid), Kunstmuseum, Wolfsburg 2008 Zerbrechliche Schönheit. Glas im Blick der Kunst, Museum Kunst Palast, Dusseldorf, Germany 2008 Buchmann Lugano, Agra / Lugano, Switzerland 2008 Red Sky, Luhring Augustine, New York 2008 Museums in the 21st century, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark 2008 16th Biennale of Sydney, Australia 2008 Sprovieri Progetti, London, UK (solo) 2007 Mario Merz: The Magnolia Table, Sperone Westwater, New York (solo) 2007 Mario Merz, Salvatore + Carline Ala, Milan, Italy (solo) 2007 Museum Kurhaus Kleve, Germany 2007 Sammlung Marzona, SMB Staatliche Museen zu Berlin 2007 Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin 2007 Buchmann Galerie Berlin, Berlin (solo) 2007 Fondazione Merz, Turin, Italy (solo) 2007 Disegni, Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switzerland (solo) 2007 Concept: Photography-Dialogues & Attitudes, Ludwig Museum of Contemporary Art, Ludwig 2007 Des Mondes Perdus, Musée d'art contemporain de Bordeaux, France 2007 ZC Collections '07, Zone: Chelsea Centre for the Arts, New York 2006 Mario Merz: 8-5-3, Gagosian Gallery, London, UK (solo) 2006 Buchmann Lugano, Agra/Lugano, Switzerland 2006 Im Anfang war das Wort, Langenscheidt KG, Munich, Germany 2006 Wrestle, CCS Bard /Hessel Museum of Art, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York 2006 Sol Lewitt/Mario Merz, Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht, Netherlands 2006 Galerie Mit Bleistift Fischer, Konrad Fischer Galerie, Dusseldorf 2006 Sol Lewitt/Mario Merz, Fondazione Merz, Turin, Italy 2005 Arte Povera, Galerie Di Meo, Paris, France 2005 Fondazione Merz, Turin, Italy 2005 ZKM | Museum für Neue Kunst, Karlsruhe, Germany 2005 Tucci Russo Gallery, Torre Pellice, Turin, Italy 2005 Castello Di Rivoli, Fondazione Torino Musei, Fondazione Merz, Turin, Italy (solo) 2004 Kunsthalle Mannheim, Germany 2004 Tucci Russo Gallery, Torre Pellice, Turin, Italy 2004 In Memoriam, Kewenig Galerie, Cologne, Gremany (solo) 2003 Galerie Tschudi, Chelsa Madalena, Zuoz/Engadin (solo) 2003 Fischer Galerie, Düsseldorf, Germany (solo) 2001 Fondazione Merz, Turin, Italy (solo) 2000 La Luce di Volta: an installation by Mario Merz, Fondazione Antonio Ratti, Como, Italy (solo) 2000 Sol Lewitt/Mario Merz: l'exotisme sans partage, Musée d'Art Contemporain, Lyon, France 1999 Fundaçao de Serralves, Porto Christian Stein Gallery, Milan, Italy (solo) 1998 Artecitta. 11 Artisti per il Passante Ferroviario di Torino, Turin, Italy 1998 Arte Italiana 1945-95. Aichi Prefectural Museum of Art, Nagoya; Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo; Yonoga City Museum of Art. Tottori; Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art, Hiroshima 1998 100 Years of Sculpture: From the Pedestal to the Pixel, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis 1998 Konrad Fischer Galerie, Düsseldorf, Germany (solo) 1997 Ausgestellt-Vorgestellt III, Skulpturen-Museum Glaskasten Marl, Germany (solo) 1997 Skulpturen-Museum Glaskasten Marl, Germany (solo) 1997 Notfalls leben wir auch ohne Herz, Kunsthalle Wien, Sammlung Speck 1997 47th Biennial of Venice, Future, Present, Past, Venice, Italy, catalogue 1996 - 1997 Galerie Jule Kewenig, Frechen, Germany (solo) 1996 Anthony d'Offay, London Der Iglo: Idee und Installation, Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum, Duisberg, Germany Christian Stein Gallery, Milan, Italy (solo) 1995 - 1996 Dum u Zvonu, Prague, Czech Republic (solo) 1995 Vera Van Laer Gallery, Antwerp, Belgium (solo) 1990 Museo Comunale D'Arte Moderna Ascona, Italy (solo) 1990 Mario Merz, Il Centro per l'arte Contemporanea Luigi Pecci Prato, Italy (solo) 1989 Mario Merz: A Retrospective, Guggenheim Museum, New York (solo) 1985 Kunsthaus Zurich Zurich, Switzerland (solo) 1980 Whitechapel Art Gallery London, UK (solo) 1978 Tucci Russo Gallery, Torre Pellice, Turin, Italy (solo) If we could imagine, Glenstone, Alcoa, Tennessee Dans L’Oeil du Critique Bernard Lamarche-Vadel et les Artistes, Musee d’Art Moderne, Paris Orientamento, Galleria Cardi, Pietrasanta, Italy Literature 1997 'Epicenter Ljubljana', Moderna Galerija Ljubljana, 1997, p. 35 1997 Catalogue 'Ausgestellt-Vorgestellt III', Marl, 1997, images p. 11-15 and 19 1996 Catalogue 'Mario Merz', Dum u Zvonu, Prague, 1996, image p. 8